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Thermal Evaluation of Graphene Nanoplatelets Nanofluid in a Fast-Responding HP with the Potential Use in Solar Systems in Smart Cities

Authors: 

M. M. Sarafraz, Iskander Tlili, Zhe Tian, Mohsen Bakouri, Mohammad Reza Safaei*, and Marjan Goodarzi

Source title: 
Applied Sciences, 9(10): 2101, 2019 (ISI)
Academic year of acceptance: 
2019-2020
Abstract: 

An experimental study was undertaken to assess the heat-transfer coefficient (HTC) of graphene nanoplatelets-pentane nanofluid inside a gravity-assisted heat pipe (HP). Influence of various parameters comprising heat flux, mass fraction of the nanoparticles, installation angle and filling ratio (FR) of the working fluid on the HTC of the HP was investigated. Results showed that the HTC of the HP was strongly improved due to the presence of the graphene nanoplatelets. Also, by enhancing the heat flux, the HTC of the HP was improved. Two trade-off behaviors were identified. The first trade-off belonged to the available space in the evaporator and the heat-transfer coefficient of the system. Another trade-off was identified between the installation angle and the residence time of the working fluid inside the condenser unit. The installation angle and the FR of the HP were identified in which the HTC of the HP was the highest. The value of installation angle and filling ratio were 65° and 0.55, respectively. Likewise, the highest HTC was obtained at the largest mass fraction of the graphene nanoplatelets which was at wt. % = 0.3. The improvement in the HTC of the HP was ascribed to the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects of the graphene nanoplatelets.