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A Comparative Study of Different Machine Learning Algorithms in Predicting the Content of Ilmenite in Titanium Placer


Yingli LV, Qui-Thao Le, Hoang-Bac Bui, Xuan-Nam Bui, Hoang Nguyen,Trung Nguyen-Thoi, Jie Dou, Xuan Song

Source title: 
Applied Sciences, 10(2), 2020 (ISI)
Academic year of acceptance: 

In this study, the ilmenite content in beach placer sand was estimated using seven soft computing techniques, namely random forest (RF), artificial neural network (ANN), k-nearest neighbors (kNN), cubist, support vector machine (SVM), stochastic gradient boosting (SGB), and classification and regression tree (CART). The 405 beach placer borehole samples were collected from Southern Suoi Nhum deposit, Binh Thuan province, Vietnam, to test the feasibility of these soft computing techniques in estimating ilmenite content. Heavy mineral analysis indicated that valuable minerals in the placer sand are zircon, ilmenite, leucoxene, rutile, anatase, and monazite. In this study, five materials, namely rutile, anatase, leucoxene, zircon, and monazite, were used as the input variables to estimate ilmenite content based on the above mentioned soft computing models. Of the whole dataset, 325 samples were used to build the regarded soft computing models; 80 remaining samples were used for the models’ verification. Root-mean-squared error (RMSE), determination coefficient (R2), a simple ranking method, and residuals analysis technique were used as the statistical criteria for assessing the model performances. The numerical experiments revealed that soft computing techniques are capable of estimating the content of ilmenite with high accuracy. The residuals analysis also indicated that the SGB model was the most suitable for determining the ilmenite content in the context of this research.