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Converting biomass of agrowastes and invasive plant into alternative materials for water remediation


Thi Thanh Huyen Nguyen, Xuan Cuong Nguyen, Dang Le Tri Nguyen, Dinh Duc Nguyen, Thi Yen Binh Vo, Quang Nha Vo, Trung Duong Nguyen, Quang Viet Ly, Huu Hao Ngo, Dai-Viet N. Vo, Thang Phan Nguyen, Il Tae Kim, Quyet Van Le

Source title: 
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 2021 (ISI)
Academic year of acceptance: 

Three types of biomass of invasive plants and agrowastes, namely, the wattle bark of Acacia auriculiformis (BA), mimosa (BM), and coffee husks (BC), were converted into biochars through slow pyrolysis and investigated for their ability to remove dyes in water. The properties of the materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. The BET surface area (total pore volume) of BC was 2.62 m2/g (0.007 cm3/g), far below those of BA and BM with 393.15 cm2/g (0.195 m3/g) and 285.53 cm2/g (0.153 m3/g), respectively. The optimal adsorption doses for the removal of methylene blue (MB) were found to be 2, 5, and 5 g/L for BC, BA, and BM, respectively. The suitable pH ranges for MB removal were 6–12 for BA, 7–12 for BC, and 2–10 for BM. The majority of MB (over 83%) was removed in the initial 30 min, followed by a more quasisteady state condition after the removal rate exceeded 90%. The experimental data were fitted with the kinetic models (PFO, PSO, Bangham, IDP), indicating that physicochemical adsorption, pore diffusion process, and multiple stages are the dominant mechanisms for the MB adsorption onto biochars. Finally, BA and BM showed similar adsorption efficiencies, while BC may not be favorable for use as an adsorbent due to its low surface area and low pore volume.